This essay initially appeared on Abe Voelker’s weblog, and is reprinted with permission.
This Christmas, like each different, I traveled to northern Wisconsin to stick with my mother and father on the dairy farm I grew up on. As traditional I took the chance to assist my dad and youthful brother with barn chores and milk cows. The cows must be milked twice a day, every single day, roughly round four a.m. and four p.m. I didn’t assist out each shift however I labored greater than sufficient to as soon as once more be humbled concerning the life I left behind and recalibrate my nostalgia.
Talking of which, I by no means had the work ethic to be a farmer. Ever since I used to be little and enjoying video video games on our NES, I used to be enamored by electronics. By the point our household received a private pc and dial-up web for Christmas in 1997, once I was 11, I used to be utterly and hopelessly sucked in. There adopted many evenings the place my dad would come flying in to the home to yell at me for being late for chores once I misplaced monitor of time on “that rattling pc.” 😅
Fortunately for all concerned, my youthful brother Noah inherited my dad’s insane work ethic and love of farming and took up the farm’s reins (he additionally picked up my slack once we have been youthful—thanks Brother). He loves the work and excels at it.
I as an alternative went to school and have become a pc programmer, and haven’t lived in my hometown since.
I even have two older brothers; neither of them received the farming gene both. My eldest brother Jerry lives close to Madison and in addition works within the software program area. My second-eldest brother, John, lives close to my people and helps out very often, however he additionally does different work and has different obligations, so a lot of the every day farming work falls on my youngest brother Noah and my dad, who’s now into his 70s.
Sadly this yr, I came upon that it’ll have been my remaining Christmas coming residence and milking cows, as a result of they’ll be promoting off the cows over the approaching spring and fall.
The Finish of a Lengthy Battle
This in all probability shouldn’t be an enormous shock. Ever since I can keep in mind there has all the time been a gentle drumbeat of household farms going bust. Typically the tempo would improve, when milk and/or crop costs would hit new lows, however the drum has all the time beat on because the business by no means appeared to show a nook.
American milk is a worldwide commodity, with commensurate pricing volatility because of fluctuations in international provide and demand, futures market speculators, and different elements.Supply: USDA. 2018 greenback calculation made utilizing CPI values.
Our household farm was subjected to the identical ups and downs as each different farm however had all the time managed to climate each storm. I recall my dad saying how farming was a collection of upturns and downturns in just about every part, and the way it was necessary to economize from the great years so you possibly can survive the dangerous years.
The price of manufacturing has exceeded the worth of manufacturing for dairy farms of my household’s measurement because the USDA started accumulating these statistics in 2010.Supply: USDA, “Milk value of manufacturing by measurement of operation”
One of many dangerous occasions I can keep in mind was within the mid-to-late ’90s—I used to be in elementary faculty—when milk costs have been so low that some farmers have been dumping their milk down the drain in protest. At the moment, my mother acquired concerned in dairy activism and have become a lead organizer of a gaggle of space farmers who labored collectively to attempt to enhance their lot and lift public consciousness of their struggles.
In December 1995, they met with Wisconsin progressive legend Ed Garvey, a labor lawyer who efficiently helped type the NFL gamers’ union, to speak about forming a union for farmers.
The next yr, after being rebuffed by a state consultant for being a negligible % of his constituency and advised to return again once they had extra help, they rallied farmers throughout the state to voluntarily shut off their land to all leisure exercise corresponding to searching, fishing, snowmobiling, and four-wheeling (snowmobile and ATV trails typically cross farmers’ personal land in Wisconsin).
Additionally they blockaded a creamery cooperative’s weighing scales to protest the low costs.
In 1997, they based a corporation referred to as Save Our Household Farms with the target of getting farmers throughout the nation to answer a non-binding referendum on pricing mechanisms and provide administration. I feel the intent was to offer proof of grassroots farmer help for Canadian-style controls on milk worth and provide, which scale back volatility and the necessity for subsidies and have managed to take care of Canada’s household farms’ existence, which might give the American federal authorities ammo to institute comparable insurance policies.
Later, in 1998, they succeeded in establishing their union (technically a guild on account of federal labor legal guidelines) as a department of OPEIU, which in flip is affiliated with AFL-CIO.
Sadly, whereas my mother and the opposite farmers had some success in elevating consciousness and garnering some consideration from numerous authorities officers, their efforts didn’t have any discernible impact on coverage or the milk worth backside line. Dairy farmers as soon as once more needed to both maintain on tight and journey it out, or go bust (and lots of did).
For our household at the moment, the milk worth state of affairs mixed with my dad needing knee surgical procedure (from repeated stress of kneeling on concrete to exploit cows) resulted in us having a dispersal sale and promoting off a lot of the herd.
I keep in mind it being an emotional day. After spending every week completely cleansing up the barn and cattle, we arrange a fenced-off present space outdoors the barn the place on the day of the public sale, the cattle have been paraded out one-by-one to show to bidders and the auctioneer.
Milk costs being low additionally lowers the worth of milking cows themselves, so we acquired much less cash than we had hoped for. To a child it felt like vultures have been paying a pittance to hold away a bit of my id. By the top of the day, wanting down the alleyway at mostly-empty cow stalls bedded with recent sawdust, that anger turned to unhappiness and a way of loss.
In time, my dad recovered from his surgical procedure, my older brothers graduated from highschool and moved out, and as my youthful brother and I aged into our early teenagers, the herd was slowly constructed as much as near-previous ranges once more.
‘Get Huge or Get Out’
It appears exhausting to consider however at one level it was potential to make an honest dwelling as a dairy farmer with a small herd (what’s now thought-about small, anyway). In 1981, my dad had a herd of 82 milking cows and he cracked the highest 50 in all of northwest Wisconsin’s 22 counties for common milk manufacturing. This was within the coronary heart of America’s dairyland by the best way, to the purpose that federal milk pricing was based mostly on what number of miles away from right here you have been.
Whereas not a scientific ballot, it’s an fascinating pattern. When you take a look at the herd sizes listed you possibly can see that they’re all what would now be thought-about small, with solely two herds simply barely over 100 head.
From what I can inform, the farming panorama modified dramatically within the 1970s when President Nixon promoted agribusiness lobbyist Earl “Rusty” Butz to USDA secretary. Butz had a status going again to a minimum of the 1950s for lobbying for dramatic modernizations to farming on the expense of small farms. “Adapt or die; resist and perish… Agriculture is now massive enterprise” he would say. By the 1970s, earlier than his USDA nomination, he was a director of three giant agribusiness firms.
Earlier than Butz, farming practices have been dominated by FDR New Deal-era controls on manufacturing, when reminiscences of the Mud Bowl and destruction of the land via overproduction have been nonetheless vivid. These manufacturing controls aimed to clean out volatility by paying farmers to maintain fields fallow in occasions of overproduction, and to launch grain from storage in occasions of shortages. Farming manufacturing was geared towards American consumption, however even with the manufacturing controls there was all the time a surplus of grain to cope with.
Nixon introduced Butz in with a mandate to eliminate the grain surpluses. Butz architected this by promoting off the grain surpluses to the Soviets in “the most important grain deal as far as we [knew] within the historical past of the world” in 1972 for a whole lot of tens of millions of dollars.
Sadly, the deal didn’t include an higher restrict on how a lot grain the Soviets might purchase (“as a result of it didn’t happen to [them] that the Russians might ever purchase an excessive amount of”), and the Soviets purchased up one-fourth of the U.S. wheat harvest that yr. The next yr, American grocery store costs for bread and different items shot up by 20 %, of which some estimates attribute no less than 15 % of the rise immediately on the export deal. Butz and the opposite dealmakers have been dragged earlier than a livid Congress to testify on what occurred.
The grain shortages have been a windfall for grain farmers, who have been getting a better worth for his or her grain, however dangerous information for dairy farmers and different livestock farmers who fed their animals with grain.
To make up for the grain shortfall, Butz eliminated all manufacturing limits on grain and fervently inspired farmers to go wild with manufacturing, to plant “from fencerow to fencerow” and “get huge or get out.”
The consequences have been shortly obvious, as earlier than his USDA tenure was completed Butz turned a pariah to everybody however the huge farmers as small farmers went bust underneath the continuous tightening of the effectivity noose (Butz in fact had no sympathy for these “inefficient” farms).
Whereas not the entire story, Butz’s period was undoubtedly a serious turning level in orienting our meals financial system in the direction of consolidation and focus of manufacturing in fewer and fewer arms.
Rise of the CAFOs
The consolidation of dairy and the continuous shrinking of revenue margins have led to drastic modifications to the business through the years. One change is that via selective breeding, improved vitamin, elevated milking frequency, and different elements, the quantity of milk that a single cow yields per yr has greater than doubled because the 1970s:
Supply: USDA Fast Stats
This has allowed general milk manufacturing to extend, even whereas the whole variety of cows has shrank:
Supply: USDA Fast Stats
Whereas the general variety of cows have decreased a bit, the variety of herds of cows, i.e. the variety of farming operations, have decreased dramatically (and continues to take action—the newest rely on the speed of change is 2 dairy farms per day closing):
Supply: USDA Fast Stats
What this implies is that the typical variety of cows on a given dairy operation has tremendously risen, i.e., dairy farms have develop into a lot denser when it comes to livestock. Taking a look at authorities statistics on dairy farm profitability, the rationale that is occurring (and the rationale the development will solely proceed) appears to be apparent—solely farms with hundreds of cows, that may use their measurement to chop prices, are capable of function within the black:
The one dairy farms which were capable of flip a revenue (internet worth above zero) because the USDA started amassing statistics on dairy manufacturing in 2010 are the very largest.
Supply: USDA Milk Value of Manufacturing Estimates, “Milk value of manufacturing by measurement of operation”
These modifications have given rise to an entire new sort of livestock farm: the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation, or CAFO. CAFOs are outlined by the EPA as “an AFO [Animal Feeding Operation] with greater than 1000 animal models” (which for dairy, is 700 dairy cows, both milking or dry) or “any measurement AFO that discharges manure or wastewater right into a pure or man-made ditch, stream or different waterway.”
In Wisconsin, the variety of dairy CAFOs and the entire variety of cows on these operations continues to rise quickly:
Supply: Wisconsin DNR CAFO Permittees (Word: These numbers solely cowl the newest CAFO allow issued to every operation. I’ve a FOIA request in progress with the WI DNR to get the historic allow knowledge with a view to enhance this chart’s accuracy.)
The focus of livestock on small plots of land and the large-scale industrialization of those farming operations have given rise to new unfavorable externalities. CAFO livestock produce literal manure lagoons. There’s a lot manure produced that an enormous pit have to be dug, fitted with a liner, and the manure is dumped in, forming a man-made lake manufactured from animal waste.
These manure lagoons are open-air, and the poisonous fumes elevate charges of bronchial asthma in youngsters dwelling close by. The liquid itself incorporates poisonous chemical compounds, pathogens, and micro organism, and if it leaks out (say throughout heavy rainfall), is devastating to close by communities because it contaminates the native water desk, the place individuals draw their properly water from, and destroys native our bodies of water the place wildlife reside and other people recreate.
Because of the variety of cows on these operations, excessive capability wells that draw over 100,000 gallons of water per day are required with a view to draw sufficient water for all of the livestock. In rural Wisconsin, our pure water provide is starting to be destroyed by means of a mixture of manure and fertilizer spills contaminating our nicely water, and excessive capability wells sucking out a lot water that it’s disrupting the water desk.
In response to a reasonably damning 2010 CDC report on CAFOs that’s value studying in its entirety,
The agriculture sector, together with CAFOs, is the main contributor of pollution to lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. It has been discovered that states with excessive concentrations of CAFOs expertise on common 20 to 30 critical water high quality issues per yr because of manure administration issues (EPA, 2001).
The report goes on to explain the long-term injury from even a single manure spill:
When groundwater is contaminated by pathogenic organisms, a critical menace to consuming water can happen. Pathogens survive longer in groundwater than floor water resulting from decrease temperatures and safety from the solar.
Even when the contamination seems to be a single episode, viruses might turn out to be hooked up to sediment close to groundwater and proceed to leach slowly into groundwater. One air pollution occasion by a CAFO might turn out to be a lingering supply of viral contamination for groundwater (EPA, 2005).
Groundwater can nonetheless be in danger for contamination after a CAFO has closed and its lagoons are empty. When given elevated air publicity, ammonia in soil transforms into nitrates. Nitrates are extremely cellular in soil, and can attain groundwater faster than ammonia. It may be harmful to disregard contaminated soil.
If a CAFO has contaminated a water system, group members ought to be involved about nitrates and nitrate poisoning. Elevated nitrates in consuming water may be particularly dangerous to infants, resulting in blue child syndrome and potential dying.
For some real-world examples, in Wisconsin in 2017, a child died from blue child syndrome, a situation linked to excessive nitrates, in a group in Armenia, WI which had been experiencing a spike in personal nicely nitrate ranges after a 6,000-head dairy CAFO arrange store there. Within the central sands area of Wisconsin, rivers such because the Little Plover, which was a notably good trout stream, have almost dried up totally from the substantial use of excessive capability wells.
In Kewaunee County in northeast Wisconsin, greater than one-third (!) of 320 wells examined have been discovered to be unsafe to make use of as a result of unsafe ranges of coliform micro organism or nitrates. In 2004, in that area, a six-month-old turned violently ailing after taking a shower in water poisoned by manure runoff. A state consultant referred to as the state of affairs there a “public well being disaster.”
A bathe in rural Kewaunee County runs brown, contaminated by manure after a rainfall. Courtesy Erika and Rob Balza.
In 2014, in Juneau County, a person was pressured to promote the house he had lived in for 20 years after a CAFO started repurposing water irrigation techniques to spray manure, and the liquid soaked into the partitions of his house (“It was an ammonia odor. It harm so dangerous even to breathe,” he stated).
Apart from environmental externalities, it’s additionally an open secret that these CAFOs closely depend on undocumented immigrants for his or her day-to-day labor, notably the parlor milking setups. In a current information story, Congressman Devin Nunes’s household’s giant dairy farm in Iowa obtained busted for such practices.
Nevertheless, it’s necessary to keep in mind that farms are in competitors with one another for labor, land, and different assets. On this case, my brother and different household farms wrestle and pay dearly to rent and retain authorized staff at a excessive value. Different farms, notably the massive ones, pay decrease prices for unlawful labor and externalize the prices of depressed wages onto everybody else, not in contrast to externalizing the prices of their air pollution. It’s not a good enjoying area to compete on.
Our CAFO neighbor
Only a mile down the street from my household’s farm is the most important CAFO in our county, with over 5,000 head of cattle. This CAFO has acquired 4 Protected Consuming Water Act (SDWA) violations from the EPA, two of that are because of coliform micro organism counts, in addition to one Clear Waters Act (CWA) violation for discharging right into a wetland.
These are the federally-documented violations, anyway. My mother took some video of a leak a few month after the EPA-documented CWA violation which traveled down the hill right into a creek that runs via my mother and father’ property, killing the wildlife there for God is aware of how lengthy. This CAFO is now going by way of the method of putting in a manure pipeline to maneuver waste round to varied fields—to date via personal lands, however apparently they’re additionally pursuing public right-of-ways.
It’s terrifying to think about how quickly and the way severely the water desk and close by wetlands might be broken if this pipeline have been to burst or leak, and the way a lot manure might be pumped out under the topsoil earlier than being detected.
So I spoke to the county’s conservation officer who had nothing however good issues to say concerning the pipeline and the way it will get tanker vans off the roads, how a pipeline is safer for the surroundings, and the way leaks can be stopped by shutoff valves. That could be true, however but you possibly can simply discover information reviews of manure pipeline leaks. Once I requested my mother her ideas, she advised me there was allegedly a pipeline break already which sprayed manure throughout a neighbor’s yard and home, and confirmed me some footage she took of the cleanup.
For my brother Noah, who’s taking up the farm, having the county’s largest CAFO close by sadly places a competetive pressure on his already-difficult state of affairs. As a result of Wisconsin Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (WPDES) allow necessities require these CAFOs to personal or lease sufficient land to unfold manure on proportional to the quantity of cows they’ve, this multi-million greenback company down the street is underneath land-pressure, and gobbles up all farming land within the space typically earlier than it’s even available on the market. This makes it more durable for my brother to seek out farmland to purchase or lease close by.
Failure of the Cooperatives
One last item I’d like to the touch on is the failure of the farmer cooperatives on this period.It’s in all probability well-known that there have been durations the place farmers have went by means of robust occasions, and going again to at the very least the 1920s, farmers have shaped voluntary cooperatives (co-ops) to assist each other out by pooling assets.
Take a look at this quaint 1940s-era video for an explainer:
Sadly, the fashionable actuality is that by way of repeated mergers, farming cooperatives have conglomerated into company behemoths. The co-op’s presence in a farming group at the moment is as an area outpost that belongs to a sprawling empire.
For instance, in my household’s farm space the co-op conglomerate is Cenex, a.okay.a. CHS Inc., which is a Fortune 100 firm (!). They usually’re not the one Fortune 100 farmer co-op both—there was as soon as Farmland Industries, which imploded from the sort of monetary stupidity that may solely occur once you develop too giant.
Anyway, for all of the mergers and supposed effectivity gained by the native cooperative turning into a company dragon, my brother will get cheaper seeds by shopping for them from one dude beginning up his personal enterprise out of the again of his truck, in comparison with the native co-op’s costs.
I’ve been informed different providers offered by the co-op endure from large inefficiencies as properly—too many managers and idle staff on the headquarters, too many vans present up concurrently at job websites resulting in idle staff, inefficient truck routes, and so forth. The forms of points that crop up when there aren’t any farmers within the combine on the co-op any extra—there’s no “pores and skin within the recreation,” and no connection to the farmers being served.
The identical type of stuff occurs with the cooperative creameries—the place the place dairy farmers ship their milk to be processed. You wouldn’t know there was a disaster happening taking a look at this creamery’s publication, with puff items about cheese curds displaying up on the QVC channel, or a few director’s jetsetting journeys to China and the way impressed the locals have been he might use chopsticks. In the meantime member farmers (patrons) are getting the bottom milk checks from the creamery they’ve ever gotten. But someway the board of this creamery had sufficient money to allegedly purchase one other creamery to the tune of $6 million with out bringing it up for a patron vote nor mentioning their intention at their annual assembly.
Farmers are usually scared to talk up about this type of stuff for worry of getting dumped by their creamery and having nowhere to ship their milk (as a result of creameries serve restricted geographic areas, a farmer might have only a few—maybe even only one—choices for the place to ship their milk). With the overabundance of milk provide, the sensation is that creameries are looking out for tactics to decrease their provide burden by eliminating patrons. Not with the ability to promote their milk is clearly a dying knell for a dairy farmer.
Level being, farmer cooperatives have been as soon as native establishments bootstrapped by the farmers themselves, however now they too have fallen into the lure of company consolidation and turn out to be disconnected from the individuals they have been meant to serve. Now, in arduous occasions, these establishments have develop into a supply of hysteria—at greatest an detached, inefficient use of assets, and at worst a possible hostile actor that would destroy you. One thing unthinkable in comparison with their founding rules.
No Answer in Sight
What’s now occurring within the remaining levels to the American household dairy farm has already occurred to different meals and livestock industries on this nation. Notably poultry, as poultry farmers these days are kind of serfs to a handful of giant firms.
For a time some thought it might be attainable for small dairy farms to flee to a distinct segment like natural, however even these farms are going bust as the massive company farms have penetrated that market and flooded it with product (even when they in all probability aren’t following the already-lax USDA laws).
I do assume it might have been potential to save lots of the household dairy farm sooner or later, in all probability via a provide administration program just like what Canada has. There are all types of arguments to be made for or towards such a system however by all accounts Canadian farmers and shoppers are usually proud of their setup up there. The 2014 Farm Invoice would’ve been an excellent begin; it included an oversupply administration mechanism, however CAFO lobbyist teams just like the Dairy Enterprise Affiliation pushed a last-minute modification to take away it.
However at this level for America, the cow is out of the barn so to talk and it’s too late for our household dairy farmers. As dairy farms proceed to shut at report ranges, the consolidation into giant company farms will proceed unabated.
For a style of what the close to future appears like, Wal-Mart already started bottling their very own milk, shutting down over 100 dairy producers within the course of. As for the distant future, I think about it is going to look just like the consolidation in different livestock industries, the place a handful of mega firms dictate manufacturing and the “farmers” are extra like serfs, deeply in debt and completely beholden to the company. I already talked about poultry farming, but in addition take a look at hog farming: the most important hog producer within the nation, Smithfield Meals, is now owned by a Chinese language company, and which is answerable for staggering quantities of injury to rural American communities because of the concentrated waste it produces.
Within the identify of effectivity, income will probably be concentrated in fewer and fewer arms whereas waste will get concentrated into increasingly more poisonous types to be dumped on rural communities.
Rising up on a dairy farm is a singular expertise that I used to be lucky to have. The farm was woven by means of all points of our household’s life, and the success of our household trusted everybody’s contribution to the farm. Household bonds have been tempered by working with one another day-after-day, and collectively overcoming the minor crises that arose (cows getting out, gear breaking down, and so on.). That’s why I used “demise” on this article’s title; whereas it might appear melodramatic to some, that’s what it feels wish to me—like a bit of the household is dying.
You get slightly style of many issues engaged on a farm, from agricultural, to development (e.g., constructing and fixing up areas of the barn), to engineering (e.g., designing ad-hoc fixes to damaged implements within the area), to mechanical and engine restore (e.g., fixing tractors and welding implements).
It saddens me that my brother Noah gained’t have the ability to cross that legacy on to his daughter, and I can’t give my very own youngsters a glimmer of it by having them work on the farm over the summers (and neither can my nieces or nephews).
It’s additionally a loss for Wisconsin’s tradition—“America’s Dairyland”—that we aren’t going to have farm youngsters arising any extra, and our rural pastoral panorama that was dotted with barns, silos, and pastures with grazing cattle is being changed by an industrial one with big buildings, heavy machine visitors, and synthetic lakes made from animal waste. These of us who grew up in these rural areas and moved out however longed to return can’t even bear to take action any longer as a result of the land has been blighted.
Whereas the longer term continues to be unsure for my child brother Noah, I’ve little question he’ll succeed at no matter he places his thoughts to. He’s obtained brains, expertise, and a god-tier work ethic.
If there’s something good to return of the state of affairs, I’m glad a minimum of that he’ll be free of the burden of getting cows, which require one to be out within the barn each single day with out finish. It can even be a aid to my dad, who I discussed earlier is now in his seventies and nonetheless has to work out within the barn day-after-day due to the problem in hiring authorized farmhands.
No matter occurs, these household bonds that have been cast on the farm stay, and we’ll care for one another.
What You Can Do
As I stated, I don’t assume there’s something on the horizon that might save household dairy farms, save for a provide administration program all of the sudden showing like a deus ex machina and fixing the overproduction drawback. I recommend lobbying your representatives for supporting such a measure in a future Farm Invoice, and/or supporting household farm organizations who’re preventing for that and different measures comparable to:
In the event you stay in a rural or semi-rural space, it’s crucial you take note of what’s happening in your native space. CAFOs will proceed to develop and unfold, and thru organizations just like the Dairy Enterprise Affiliation foyer for legal guidelines giving them freer means to pollute the air, water, and land that all of us want as a way to survive. I recommend proactively lobbying your metropolis or township to move ordinances banning polluting actions in your space and restrictions that forestall CAFOs from working in your space (in any other case you may find yourself on the defensive, which is almost unattainable to win). Some organizations that defend Wisconsin’s water you possibly can help are:
Everybody, together with cityfolk, should get educated on what’s going on with our meals financial system, and the damaging course it has taken. I’m nonetheless getting educated myself so am open to recommendations, however the Meals and Setting Reporting Community appears to do good work right here.
Lastly, I additionally advocate everybody, however particularly rural people help the Institute for Native Self-Reliance, as they work arduous on a number of fronts (together with one other difficulty pricey to my coronary heart, enhancing broadband entry) to empower native communities.
This text is predicated solely alone reflection and makes an attempt to know the systemic modifications that affected my household’s dairy farm. Any errors I made are solely my very own and don’t mirror upon anybody else talked about within the article.
I spent a number of time scripting this submit however there are such a lot of different points that I wasn’t capable of even get to. For instance, the startling price of farmers committing suicide (greater than double that of veterans), which hit near residence when the person who visited our farm my whole life in his acquainted white truck and bought my dad farm gear killed himself (RIP Marty); to creamery cooperative mismanagement and ineffectiveness and the farmers doing battle with their very own creameries, and the overall failure of the Capper-Volstead Act; to the consolidation of the farm implement business; to John Deere performing some shady issues (right here and right here); to statistical modifications of the worth unfold from farm to shopper (i.e., the sum of money farmers get from a gallon of milk or different dairy merchandise in comparison with their retail value); to digging into the nasty issues CAFO lobbyists are doing; to rural communities preventing towards CAFOs of their space; to Trump’s tariffs and a sure political anger individuals direct at farmers; and so many extra I remorse I wasn’t capable of do justice to.
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